Textless speech emotion conversion using decomposed and discrete representations
Felix Kreuk, Adam Polyak, Jade Copet, Eugene Kharitonov, Tu Anh Nguyen, Morgane Revière, Wei-Ning Hsu, Abdelrahman Mohamed, Emmanuel Dupoux, Yossi Adi
Abstract Speech emotion conversion is the task of modifying the perceived emotion of a speech utterance while preserving the lexical content and speaker identity. In this study, we cast the problem of emotion conversion as a spoken language translation task. We use a decomposition of the speech signal into discrete learned representations, consisting of phonetic-content units, prosodic features, speaker, and emotion. First, we modify the speech content by translating the phonetic-content units to a target emotion, and then predict the prosodic features based on these units. Finally, the speech waveform is generated by feeding the predicted representations into a neural vocoder. Such a paradigm allows us to go beyond spectral and parametric changes of the signal, and model non-verbal vocalizations, such as laughter insertion, yawning removal, etc. We demonstrate objectively and subjectively that the proposed method is vastly superior to current approaches and even beats text-based systems in terms of perceived emotion and audio quality. We rigorously evaluate all components of such a complex system and conclude with an extensive model analysis and ablation study to better emphasize the architectural choices, strengths and weaknesses of the proposed method.   Blog Demo
Text-Free Prosody-Aware Generative Spoken Language Modeling In Proc. of ACL 2022
Eugene Kharitonov*, Ann Lee*, Adam Polyak, Yossi Adi, Jade Copet, Kushal Lakhotia, Tu Anh Nguyen, Morgane Rivière, Abdelrahman Mohamed, Emmanuel Dupoux, Wei-Ning Hsu
Abstract Speech pre-training has primarily demonstrated efficacy on classification tasks, while its capability of generating novel speech, similar to how GPT-2 can generate coherent paragraphs, has barely been explored. Generative Spoken Language Modeling (GSLM) (Lakhotia et al., 2021) is the only prior work addressing the generative aspects of speech pre-training, which replaces text with discovered phone-like units for language modeling and shows the ability to generate meaningful novel sentences. Unfortunately, despite eliminating the need of text, the units used in GSLM discard most of the prosodic information. Hence, GSLM fails to leverage prosody for better comprehension, and does not generate expressive speech. In this work, we present a prosody-aware generative spoken language model (pGSLM). It is composed of a multi-stream transformer language model (MS-TLM) of speech, represented as discovered unit and prosodic feature streams, and an adapted HiFi-GAN model converting MS-TLM outputs to waveforms. We devise a series of metrics for prosody modeling and generation, and re-use metrics from GSLM for content modeling. Experimental results show that the pGSLM can utilize prosody to improve both prosody and content modeling, and also generate natural, meaningful, and coherent speech given a spoken prompt.   Code Blog Demo



* Equal contribution as first authors.